God’s New Pasture #6: Barrier Varieties

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God’s New Pasture #6: Barrier Varieties


December 9, 2018

In the living world, without isolation, there will be no structure, and there will be no complexity and diversity. Only when various biomembranes divide the organism into multiple parts with different components can there be organelles, which are highly Differentiated cells, organs with different functions, and layers of complex structures built with these functional elements; similarly, the stratum barrier erects barriers between different groups of people in society, making them rely on different modes of livelihood and develop different skills And endowments, form different cultural traits, and also play different roles in the “superorganism” of society. Like biofilms, class barriers are selectively permeable (selectively permeable), which also builds complex structures. The essential.

However, class is not the only social barrier. There are many selectively permeable membranes that limit social mobility and cultural interaction, and they also play a role in the construction of complex societies; these barriers determine which groups or individuals are trapped in which particular which are more likely to be attracted (or pushed) into other parts of society, which cultural elements are likely to spread across barriers, and which are localized.


Geo-ecological barriers have played an important role throughout the history of biological evolution, and were a source of biological and cultural diversity as humans spread across the globe; however, in the age of civilization, it has taken on new manifestations and effects, and some of the barriers are They stand out because they block the expansion of civilization—an economic-cultural-institutional complex—and for small groups, they are not impenetrable in themselves, the point is that it will be used by whom and in what way. way to penetrate.

Polar In the simplest narrative, the Americas were colonized in the late last glacial period and then isolated from the Old World until Columbus, thus developing a unique civilization; however, on closer inspection, at least in the post-glacial period, the Americas were actually far less isolated , 82 kilometers wide, and in the middle there is the Bering Strait where the Diomede Islands can be used as a springboard. It is not a big obstacle for polar residents who already own ships. The southern part of the strait is 58 and 48 kilometers away from the mainland. St. Lawrence The islands of St. Lawrence and Nunivak, as well as the Diomedes themselves, have been inhabited for thousands of years, and their culture is not isolated from the Eskimo-Aleut ) other groups of the language family.

In fact, the colonization of the Americas from the eastern end of Eurasia occurred many times, of which at least four are genetically and linguistically testable: jumping along the coast from the Bering Isthmus and the southern side of Alaska about 16,000 years ago The incoming immigrants, the immigrants who crossed the ice-free corridor in the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains about 13,000 years ago, and the ancient Eskimos (Paleo-Eskimos) who crossed the strait about 5,000 years ago, swept across the North American polar regions with a rapid force about 1,000 years ago, replacing them. Or the Iniuts (also known as Neo-Eskimos), who excluded most of the ancient Eskimos, a branch of the latter also moved westward back to the Chukchi Peninsula, and finally we add the Nordics in AD 986 Colonization of Greenland. [1]

The real obstacle is the polar ecology, not the straits. For subtropical and temperate settlers, the near-Arctic region was a terrifying place of death, and as late as the late nineteenth century, there were still many well-financed and well-equipped explorers buried in the ice fields, [ 2] However for groups that have long adapted to this ecology, Eskimos, Chukchi, Sami, Nenets, it is an unimpeded world, the problem is that these groups are hunter-gatherers or swimming reindeer Herders, coupled with polar conditions can only support very low population density, so their culture is very simple (although much more complex than tropical hunter-gatherers, but not the same as settled civilization), so when they migrate and spread, it is relatively simple. Few can play the role of communication mediator between major civilizations.

However, there are a few exceptions. The ancient Eskimos brought bows and arrows to America. As mentioned in Chapter 1, the introduction of bows and arrows had a profound impact on the society of western North America. The Inuit brought iron and Mongolian recurve bows. The effects are also not small, [3] but in general, these effects are sporadic and sparse, and confined to the northern fringes far from the centers of American civilization, because the population size and social complexity of polar hunters are not large enough to cause greater intensity Therefore, the American civilization was indeed effectively isolated from the Eurasian civilization.

Tropical Africa is an old continent and is no stranger to the civilized world. The great geographical discovery also began with the Portuguese’s exploration of the west coast of Africa. [4] The Arabs were active in trade on the east coast of Africa earlier, but Africa was a European colonizer. The last continent to be conquered. Here, the tropical barrier is blocking the expansion of civilization. Many tropical pathogens are as frightening as death, especially malaria, yellow fever and tsetse fly. The reason why the Bantu people They can expand east and south from a corner of West Africa to most of sub-Saharan Africa because they have adapted to these pathogens to a considerable extent. [5]

Highly enriched pathogens in the tropics also affect the personality traits of local residents, reducing their extroversion and openness to experience, making them more inclined to avoid contact with foreigners and avoid long-distance travel and migration , From a health perspective, this is a beneficial adaptation, but it will undoubtedly deepen the alienation, suspicion and isolation between groups, hindering population movement and cultural transmission. [6]

One consequence of the tropical barrier is that in the relationship between the old world civilization center and Africa, the flow of culture and population is in the opposite direction, and the cultural elements of the old world, especially the Arab-Islamic elements after the Middle Ages, gradually penetrated to the south, But there is little co-movement (except on the east coast), where deserts, savannahs, and rainforests are unattractive to Mediterranean settlers, and instead there is a constant flow of Africans into the Old World, based on their cultural The absolute disadvantage is that this movement mainly takes place in the form of slave trade. The importation of black slaves has been prevalent in the Near East, North Africa and the Indian Ocean from ancient times to modern times, which has also inspired many African regimes to rob and sell human beings as their main source of income. [7]

The situation in East Asia is just in contrast. The process of Han peasants taking their cultural advantages to colonize the south is basically not hindered by ecological barriers. The speed of colonization is mainly limited by the rhythm of land reclamation and population proliferation. The diffusion direction of culture and population is exactly the same. From Huanghuai to the Yangtze River to the Pearl River, and from the sea to the southeast, Chinese immigrants have spread all over Southeast Asia in recent times, and Taiwan has become a paradise for Fujian farmers. Chaozhou people created a dynasty in Thailand, and Hakka people established a century in Borneo. The Lanfang Republic, Vietnam has won its independence politically, but culturally it has become more and more like China. [8]

The tropical barrier also affected the Americas, severely limiting cultural and demographic interactions at the two major civilizational centers of Mesoamerica and the Andes; its consequences were most unique in India: India’s drier north was in stark contrast to the hot and humid south-central, with the former attracting There has been round after round of agro-pastoral invaders, from Near Eastern farmers, Aryan herders, Persians, to Macedonians, Afghans and Turks, most of them from some civilizational center or dominant culture, but tropical barriers hinder As a result of their rapid advance to the south-central and the special geographical shape of the subcontinent also limited the retreat of the indigenous people, the result is a unique multi-ethnic state of India, which is an important background for understanding its caste system and long-term political division (see p. Chapter 4).

The alpine fold zone has played a unique role in the historical process. The transportation difficulties caused by the alpine barrier have made the society and culture of these regions highly fragmented. This is most evident in the distribution of languages. The fold zone is often a highly mixed and diverse language. In this area, there are many remnant small languages, which is called the mosaic zone by linguists. [9]

For example, millions of people in New Guinea speak more than 1,000 languages, belonging to more than 60 language families, and the average population of each language is only a few thousand; Altai and Sino-Tibetan language families occupy three major language families, but the small Caucasus has three language families unique to the region: South Caucasus, Northwest Caucasus, and Northeast Caucasus, and there are also many Indo-European, Altai and Asian-African language families scattered there. Small languages. [11]

Another fold zone with extremely complex cultures is Zomia, also known as the Southeast Asian Massif. Just taking Yunnan Province in China as an example, there are 25 officially recognized ethnic minorities, all of which belong to Han and Tibet. , Dongtai, Miaoyao, South Asia and Altai five language families, of which at least 15 ethnic groups are unique to the local. [12]

In addition to the inconvenience of transportation caused by the terrain, an important factor that hinders the spread of culture in the fold zone is its vertical distribution ecology, that is, the ecological differences formed along the altitude gradient. River valleys, slopes, and alpine meadows all have very different soils, climates and vegetation. conditions, support different forms of farming and animal husbandry and livelihood models, which in turn shape different cultural and social structures.

Unlike horizontal differences, vertical differences mean that similar ecological regions cannot be connected together, and each cultural small group is surrounded by a circle of heterogeneous groups, which hinders intergroup communication and population flow, as well as large cultural communities. Formed because cultural differences create barriers and fears between groups, especially when such differences cross ecological boundaries, where cultural barriers are particularly strong.

The arid and vast temperate Eurasian steppe of the steppe is not only a barrier for the colonization of settled farmers, but also a highway connecting several major civilization centers, and the intermediary role is played by the nomadic livestock groups; steppe herdsmen and communication The polar hunters in Asia and America were quite different. The combined use of horses and dogs allowed them to control very large herds and thus accumulate considerable wealth, while the carrying capacity of horses, camels and vehicles allowed them to keep It is quite complex material culture while maintaining mobility, and has the ability to coordinate actions or maintain multi-level social organization in a vast area of ​​hundreds of thousands of kilometers. are in constant conflict between them, which exerts strong selective pressure on their combat effectiveness. [13]

All of these factors combine to create a military advantage of pastoral peoples over sedentary farmers, at least at the individual and small-group levels, and once a prominent leader manages to curb internal conflict, achieve political unity or The alliance can carry forward this advantage to the national level, thus causing a huge impact on the surrounding settlement civilization. Such stories have been repeated in history. The expansion of the Indo-European-speaking peoples and the Semitic people in the Bronze Age, the impact of the classical era on the civilized world Multiple Iranian-speaking nomads: Cimmerians, Scythians and Sarmatians, then Altaic Huns, Huns, Xianbei, Turks, Khitans , Mongolia, came on stage in turn, interspersed with Uralic Magyars and Afro-Asiatic Arabs. [14]

These shocks both wreaked havoc on settled societies and spread cultural elements across vast territories, the west-to-east spread of wheat, horses, vehicles, and bronze technology, accomplished by an Indo-European herdsman who moved eastward; [15] The cultural exchange caused by the Mongol conquest was particularly extensive. After a large number of small regimes in Central Asia were eliminated, the Silk Road became unprecedentedly smooth (especially before the empire was completely divided, the Khuriltai was still held, and the imperial postal system was still in operation.) In those decades), although the Mongols were extremely brutal in the war, they were very friendly to merchants and craftsmen, had a positive and open attitude towards various techniques and practical knowledge, and were very tolerant of major religions. The era of cultural exchange. [16]

Gunpowder, firearms, siege tactics, papermaking, printing, financial bills, mathematics, chemistry, geography, and astronomical and calendar knowledge were all widely disseminated in this great exchange. The porcelain and spice trades heated up rapidly, and Tibetan Buddhism was able to move northward. Expansion, Persian and Arab elements were introduced into China in large numbers…; several of them had a particularly profound impact on Western European history: 1) The Mongol exchange opened up Western Europeans to the East, who had previously been unable to distinguish between India and Ethiopia, [ 17] It also increased their interest in the East, especially the spice trade, which promoted the great geographical discoveries in the future, 2) the introduction of papermaking prepared the conditions for the printing revolution, and 3) the Mongols brought the Black Death. [18]


In pre-civilized societies, linguistic boundaries roughly corresponded to the boundaries of homogeneous cultural groups, which (along with other cultural elements) were sufficient to distinguish them from each other, but did not constitute significant barriers to population and cultural mobility, which were then either blocked by ecological boundaries, or traffic conditions, or hindered by intergroup hostility, except during special periods of diffusion into no-man’s land, where flows are small and slow, and large-span flows are only observed on time scales of hundreds to thousands of years, while frequent exchanges In localized areas where interaction does occur, language is not a big problem, because in a world with extremely fragmented languages, people are generally multilingual enough to communicate with people from neighboring tribes. [19]

Entering the age of civilization, under the peaceful conditions created by states and alliances or hegemonic structures between states, or under the direct protection or support of state power, frequent long-distance travel is possible, so the language barrier is highlighted, because for Languages ​​in far-flung regions you didn’t have access to from an early age, and adults are notorious for being clumsy when it comes to learning a second language.

Those who live or travel abroad for occupational needs, such as long-distance traders, mobile artisans, officials serving in different places, soldiers recruited from different regions, patrons recruited by nobles from various places, begging or Missionary monks… all face a language barrier, and it is the effort to deal with this difficulty that has given rise to the lingua franca. [20]

A lingua franca tends to form around the center of a civilization and spread out over the territory covered and influenced by that civilization, because of the activities that drive demand for the lingua franca—long-distance trade, specialized professionals with a fine division of labor, and more. Hierarchical administrative systems, organized religions—either the product of civilization itself or that thrived because of it; when a civilization achieves political unity and establishes an empire, its lingua franca will be vigorously promoted by the state; and the center of civilization will produce a large number of Linguistic cultural products, especially written works, including religious texts, are a huge impetus for the spread of lingua franca, such as Sanskrit and Brahmi in Southeast Asia, not backed by state power, but mainly by trade and Sanskrit classic. [twenty one]

The above process will result in a number of well-defined areas of civilization, with their own centers, lingua franca, intellectual traditions around the classics, religions and value systems, institutional traditions, and perhaps their respective empires, although there are still some areas of converging and intermingling, but these Systematic differences in aspects will make it difficult for people from the hinterland of various civilizations to cross borders and engage in valuable activities. Between Rome and Persia, between Christianity and the Islamic world, the invisible wall between East Asia and the West still stands firmly.

The barriers between civilizations also created opportunities for some well-known trading peoples, who played a mediating role in cultural exchanges between civilizations, such as the Jews who communicated between Europe and the Islamic world, the Sogdians who ran the Silk Road, The Gujaratis who traded around the Indian Ocean and the South Seas, and the Armenians who connected Central Asia, Persia, Ottoman and Europe.


It may not be easy for contemporary people to understand the strict occupational barriers. There are so many majors to choose from when you go to college, and there are many careers to choose from when you graduate. The overwhelming recruitment advertisements seem to be opening the door of opportunity to everyone, change jobs, change careers, listen to It’s all mundane, the only constraints seem to be your own abilities and expectations of rewards (including money, prestige and status, and maybe fun), the reality is far from so wonderful, and in pre-modern society, this kind of The free and easy freedom of the sea and the sky is even more unreal.

Occupational barriers are intertwined by many factors, the first is the nature of knowledge and skills, many professional knowledge cannot be imparted without specific work situations, and they are difficult (or even impossible) to describe and record in words. In the words of Michael Polanyi, these are highly personal tacit knowledge, which can only be obtained through first-hand observation and participation in the scene where things are happening, through long-term interactions with experienced people, and constant demonstrations and feedback. , can be acquired (of course you can also try and explore by yourself, but that is much slower, and cannot accumulate much in the short life of an individual). [twenty two]

This feature of tacit knowledge makes individual practitioners the main storage of professional knowledge, and the only feasible way to impart it is with masters and apprentices. Therefore, before the Industrial Revolution, apprenticeships were the organizational basis for almost all skilled occupations. New entrants must first find a master who is willing to accept him as an apprentice. After years of apprenticeship, they can work independently. This situation has not changed until the development of modern factory production and vocational training institutions. Process design and technical standardization have made most of the tacit knowledge explicit and turned into enterprise assets, while greatly reducing the skill requirements of front-line workers, while basic explicit knowledge is provided by school education.

Modern enterprises rely on large-scale production to realize the value of their assets. In the past, the conditions for large-scale production did not exist. [23] Individual artisans and family enterprises have therefore focused on how to carefully maintain their assets, making them sustainable and sustainable. Generating a stream of income to be the long-term livelihood of the family, an asset that includes client relationships, professional reputation and professional qualifications in addition to knowledge and skills, and they will take care of it like a homesteader or a gentleman of the land, passing on key skills as much as possible. For son, or son-in-law.

Some masters will choose apprentices like sons-in-law. In fact, many apprentices eventually become sons-in-law. When they have to recruit apprentices from outside the family, they will establish a simulated father-son relationship with the apprentices to strengthen the apprentices’ obligations to the master. , and make the relationship between master and apprentice long-term, at least not let the apprentice become a competitor in the short term. For this reason, the apprenticeship period was extended as much as possible. The common standard in medieval England was seven years, and some industries were as long as more than ten years. In the first few years, you are often only able to do chores and not learn important skills. [twenty four]

Another entry barrier is the high apprenticeship fee. The entry fee for an ordinary apprenticeship in medieval England was 2-3 pounds, which is about the cash income of a low-skilled employee for a year or two, but those industries involving valuable materials or noble customers, such as gold. Silverware processing, high-end fabrics, furs and apparels, the entry fee is as high as tens or even hundreds of pounds. This is money that poor families cannot save for a lifetime, and the nobles and gentlemen who can afford the money often disdain these businesses. As a result, their apprenticeship sources are highly limited to peers or similar industries of comparable status. [25]

In order to protect the value of assets, industrial and commercial enterprises will also strive to maintain their monopoly positions. Before modern times, the commerce and handicraft industries in cities were generally under the monopoly of guilds. The monarch also tended to support this monopoly for the convenience of tax collection. lynching to enforce its monopoly, and in densely populated areas where idle labor is plentiful, low-skilled coolie trades (such as porters) are often controlled by gang organizations that have few assets other than monopoly power. [26]

Another factor that strengthens industry barriers is credit. Many industries require a considerable degree of trust between cooperation/transaction partners within the industry, as well as between them and their customers. The trust of modern enterprises is mainly based on brand and corporate reputation, accounting and auditing systems. , and risk control mechanisms such as mortgage guarantees, while in the past, it mainly came from the history of personal relationships between individuals and families, and gradually accumulated through long-term exchanges.

Because it is impossible for one person to maintain many such long-term trust relationships at the same time, in order to control risks, one has to limit the trading partners to a small circle that is familiar with each other and that any reputation problems will be quickly and fully spread, the more sensitive to risk. Industry, the more so; although the degree has weakened, this phenomenon is still clearly visible in modern times. For example, the investment banking industry has been limited to a very small circle for a long time, with complete trust among practitioners, and huge sums of money. Deals are often concluded verbally over the phone, with no paperwork required at all. [27]

The existence of the above-mentioned barriers has made many industries into highly closed circles, and it is difficult for individuals to move across industries. The moment a young boy learns from his apprenticeship, it often determines his career space for life and even generations of children and grandchildren, and also determines his career to a large extent. Which part of town (or even which street) will he live in, who he hangs out with, and who he might marry, he doesn’t necessarily have many choices even before that crucial moment.

artificial fence

Another type of barrier is artificially set up by the government. For the needs of law and order, taxation, military recruitment and prevention of rebellion, the government has always had a tendency to implement population control, because for individuals, hiding in a place where no one knows you is always The best way to evade various obligations, but population control requires a high degree of administrative capacity. Whether it can be achieved, or to what extent, depends on the degree to which the power of the state penetrates into private life. The ability of early states in this regard is very important. limited.

That’s why the feudal system (or other system with similar effect) was more popular at the time, in which taxes and military service were provided in the form of contractual obligations of the samurai nobles to the lord, and the amount depended on the size of the fief, so the lord did not need to pay. Pay attention to the population details of each territory, and security is the business of each fief holder, and the main means of preventing rebellion are uninterrupted territory patrols and monitoring of noble movements. The masses have little chance of revolting.

In terms of population control, household registration may be the earliest in China, where a full-fledged centralized bureaucracy has developed very early. The household registration control and connection mechanism based on the Shiwu system, the administrative machine from the county magistrate, the pavilion chief, the village chief, the likui, directly accesses the lowest villages and urban blocks, the household registration is detailed to include physical characteristics, and the population flow is strictly controlled . [28]

This system has been perfected in Qin and Han Dynasties, and it has been loose and tight since then. Fluctuations in numbers also largely reflect the government’s ability to survey, count and control the effective taxpayer population. [29]

Because of the existence of household registration control, although there are many migrants in China’s history, sometimes in large scales and in large spans, it is difficult for migrants to obtain legal status locally unless they are officially organized migrants (for example, the settlement of Shibian). The illegal status puts them at risk of being expelled at any time, and only when certain opportunities come, such as a change of dynasty, or the government’s determination to rectify the local household administration, can there be a chance to change. [30]

Different from the general household registration control, in the feudal system of Western Europe, the restricted movement was mainly serfs, wandering beggars (the control of this group, will be described more in Chapter 17) and individual special groups, such as Jews and lepers, Free people can travel and migrate at will, including free entry and exit (except during the war), and foreign merchants are also free to enter and leave. In England, the latter two points were also written into Article 42 of the Magna Carta in 1215. [31]

For those who are far from their homeland, the best chance to find a place to live is always in the city . However, ancient cities were not as free as contemporary cities. Most European cities were autonomous by industrial and commercial people, so they were more open to outsiders. They needed to attract businessmen and consumers. However, European cities also have many restrictions. For example, citizenship is not automatically owned by every city resident. In many cities, this qualification is called urban Freedom of the City, only free citizens (usually members of one of the city’s guilds) are allowed to practice independently and own property in the city.

One of the privileges of the citizens of London is to drive cattle into the city, so in modern times, when the liberty of the city is nothing but honor, there are still occasional rituals of driving sheep across London Bridge to express the dignity of being a free citizen. Pride; medieval cities often closed city gates and imposed curfews at night due to security needs, and those who roamed outside at night would be punished if they were found by patrollers (but those with citizenship could carry lanterns at night), which eliminated the need for homeless in the city. foothold. [32]

Chinese cities are nodes on the network of administrative levels, that is, the offices of administrative districts at all levels. The scale of cities roughly corresponds to their administrative levels (with a few exceptions such as Suzhou, Hankou, Quanzhou, etc.), and it was not until the Song Dynasty that some non-administrative cities appeared (usually in the form of “town”); this characteristic makes the design and management of the city completely revolve around administrative needs (and sometimes military needs), industry and commerce are only by-products of this, so naturally they are more closed to the mobile. [33]

In the big cities before the Song Dynasty, the square market system was mostly implemented. The residential area and the commercial area were strictly separated. Each residential area (square) had its own independent access control. No shops could be opened along the street in the square, and a curfew was imposed at night. In the designated area (city), such a city can accommodate a very limited number of industrial and commercial workers, leaving less space for other floating populations. It was not until the end of the Tang Dynasty and the beginning of the Song Dynasty that the Fangshi barrier collapsed, and the streets after opening. Alleys provided more shop space, industry and commerce also extended beyond the city, various grass markets appeared, and the scale of the city expanded significantly. After this urban revolution, Chinese society has also become more fluid. [34]

Borders In the contemporary world, the most significant barrier to the movement of people is probably the border. However, in the past, it was not an important man-made barrier. In the era of no energized barbed wire, mines, radar, searchlights, reconnaissance planes and mobile patrols , Controlling a long national border is an unaffordable luxury, so even if the flow across national borders is really small, the real obstacles are all natural barriers, big rivers, mountains, jungles, deserts, and oceans.

In ancient times, border control relied more on point-like setting of cards. Setting up checkpoints on major traffic routes could greatly increase the cost of crossing the border. Although it could not prevent detours, it could limit the flow scale to an acceptable level; in this regard, the Eastern Empire once again Going ahead, the government of the Han Dynasty established a series of checkpoints on the northern border. Passes were required for entry and exit, and both passengers and goods were registered and checked. Similar traffic restrictions were also imposed on the four passes in the Guanzhong Plain where the capital was located. [35]

Point control is more effective for sea traffic. There are not many ports suitable for large ships to berth, and even fewer suitable for long-distance trade. It requires convenient inland transportation, proximity to consumer markets, friendly and easy-to-communicate locals, and access to The ease of supply, therefore, the control of major ports to collect customs duties, is a very old practice (it was practiced by the Third Dynasty of Ur four thousand years ago), and once the customs agency is established, it can also be used to control the flow of people. [36]

In the Tang Dynasty, the post of Shi Ship Envoy was set up to control maritime trade, and Fanfang was designated as a designated residential area for foreigners in port cities. Institutions regard it as an important source of taxation. Every ship arriving in Hong Kong must be registered, and foreign businessmen need to hold customs defense before they can operate in the territory. In the Ming Dynasty, strict sea bans were implemented in most of its periods, and the municipal shipping department was out of service when it was opened. At this time, it was East Asia. In the golden age of maritime trade, the Ming Empire successfully locked the country’s gates. The Qing Dynasty continued the maritime ban policy, and maritime trade was basically limited to one port in Guangzhou. In the early Qing Dynasty, a border relocation order was issued, trying to upgrade the point control to a scorched earth policy. line control. [37]

The strengthening of border control by European countries began in the era of mercantilism after the Great Navigation. For trade protection considerations, countries strengthened customs control and vigorously cracked down on smuggling. However, these were mainly aimed at commodities, and restrictions on cross-border movement of people were delayed until one day. It only became popular after the war, partly because of the security anxiety brought about by full-scale war, but also because railroads and ships greatly reduced the cost of long-distance travel, and at this time, the options for border control were abundant enough. [38]

In the late 19th century, the unprecedented scale of cross-border movement promoted by railways and ships caused widespread concern, and major immigration destination countries began to consider the control and screening of immigrants. The United States’ 1875 “Page Act” pioneered this, prohibiting the immigration of female Chinese, 1882 The “Chinese Exclusion Act” in 2008 also prohibited the entry of all Chinese laborers. Since then, Congress has passed a series of immigration bills to gradually tighten immigration policies. The 1882 Act required the identification of immigrants’ mental health and levied a poll tax. The 1907 Act required to control the total number of immigrants. The 1917 Act excluded all Asian-Pacific immigrants and implemented a reading and writing test. The 1924 Act set immigration quotas based on ethnicity or country. So far, the immigration control model of modern Western countries has basically been established. The borders that used to rely mainly on natural barriers are now completely transformed into an institutional barrier built between nation-states. [39]

Notes: (Please refer to ” References ” for the cited literature)

[1] David Reich (2018) ch.7.

[2] Robert McGhee (2005) The Last Imaginary Place , ch.7-13.

[3] Robert McGhee (2005) ch.3.

[4] Daniel J. Boorstin (1983) The Discoverers , ch.21.

[5] Jared Diamond (1999) ch.19.

[6] Geoffrey Miller (2009) Spent , ch.12.

[7] Finn Fuglestad (2018) Slave Traders by Invitation; Wikipedia: Slavery in Africa, Arab slave trade.

[8] Nicholas Tarling (1992.ed) Vol. 1, Chapters 6, 8; Anthony Reid (1993) The Age of Trade in Southeast Asia, Vol. 2, Chapter 4.

[9] Nicholas Wade (2014) A Troublesome Inheritance , ch.4.

[10] Jared Diamond (2012) ch.10.

[11] Wikipedia: Languages ​​of the Caucasus.

[12] Wikipedia: Southeast Asian Massif, Yunnan Province#ethnicity.

[13] For the fundamental role of horses and vehicles in grassland livestock livelihoods and their contribution to combat effectiveness, see David W. Anthony (2007) ch.10-16; for more discussion of livestock herders combat effectiveness, see my series Blog “Food and Humans” No. 9 (HS:7961).

[14] René Grousset (1939) Steppe Empire; for Indo-European expansion, see David W. Anthony (2007) ch.11-16, David Reich (2018) ch.5.

[15] David W. Anthony (2007) ch.16; Wikipedia: Seima-Turbino phenomenon.

[16] René Grousset (1939) Chapters 6-7; Timothy May (2012) The Mongol Conquest in World History Part 2 Chapters.

[17] Ian Mortimer (2010) ch.3.

[18] Ronald Findlay & Kevin H. O’Rourke (2009) Power and Plenty , ch.3; William J. Bernstein (2008) A Splendid Exchange , ch.4.

[19] Jared Diamond (2012) ch.10.

[20] For the formation of lingua franca, and what conditions contribute to a language becoming lingua franca, see Nicholas Ostler (2005) Empires of the Word ; I also discuss it in Chapter II.2 of The Art of Communion.

[21] The lingua franca of the East African coast, Swahili, may be an exception, which does not have a corresponding civilizational center, although it has drawn many elements from the Arab/Islamic civilization and has also adopted the Arabic script as its writing system.

[22] Wikipedia: Tacit knowledge.

[23] Large-scale continuous production requires large-scale low-cost transportation systems, and requires a series of organizational and management innovations, see Alfred D. Chandler Jr. (1977) “The Visible Hand”.

[24] Joan Lane (1996) Apprenticeship In England, 1600-1914 , ch.1-3.

[25] Joan Lane (1996) ch.1-3; Christopher Dyer (1998) ch.8.

[26] There are many materials about the monopoly of guilds. The situation in Europe can be found in MM Postan, EE Rich & Edward Miller (1963.ed) Chapters 4-5 of Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Volume 3, and the situation in China in the Qing Dynasty can be found in G. William Skinner (1977.ed) Cities in Late Imperial China, Vol. 3, Chapter 2, Kaixiang Peng (2015), From Trading to Market, Chapter 11, William T. Rowe (1984), Hankou, Chapter 2, Chapters 6, 8, 9, 10.

[27] Peter F. Drucker (1978) Adventures of a Bystander , ch.10-11.

[28] Ikeda Yuichi (2002) “Settlements and Local Administration in Ancient China”, Vol. 1, Chapter 5, Vol. 2, Chapters 2-6.

[29] Ge Jianxiong (2002) Chapter 3 of “China’s Population History Volume 1”.

[30] Ge Jianxiong (1997) Chapter 1 of “History of Chinese Immigration, Volume 1”.

[31] Wikipedia: Magna Carta#Clauses.

[32] Wikipedia: Freedom of the City, Ian Mortimer (2010) ch.4.

[33] G. William Skinner (1977.ed) Introduction to the 1st edition, Chapter 1 of Zhao Gang (2006) “The History of Chinese Urban Development”.

[34]加藤繁(1952) 《中国经济史考证》第1卷第14-17章,G. William Skinner (1977.ed) 第1编导言,斯波义信(1988) 《宋代江南经济史研究》前篇第4章。

[35]富谷至(2010) 《文书行政的汉帝国》第3编第2章,Denis Twitchett & Michael Loewe (1986.ed)《剑桥中国秦汉史》第6章。

[36] William J. Bernstein (2008) ch.1.

[37]宋代情况见李剑农(1957) 《宋元明经济史稿》,第6章,明代海禁见Frederick W. Mote & Denis C. Twitchett (1988.ed)《剑桥中国明代史》,上卷,第8章。

[38] Wikipedia: Border control#History.

[39] Wikipedia: Page Act of 1875, Chinese Exclusion Act, Immigration Act of 1882, Immigration Act of 1907, Immigration Act of 1917, Immigration Act of 1924.

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