To keep track of train positions, the railway line is divided into small segments with an average length of one to two kilometers, and each segment is connected to a signal that informs if there is a train on that segment. The signal is controlled by a relay that senses the current. Similar to a traffic light, the current signal is green if the segment is idle, otherwise it turns red. The study found that solar storms can disrupt the current balance by altering the signal and causing train delays. Stronger solar storms can cause more signal failures, increasing delays for trains.
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