The exploration of Mao Zedong’s early Shanghai footprints (1919-1926)

Abstract: Mao Zedong’s residence, meeting place and work place in Shanghai in his early years included Mao Zedong’s former residence in 1920 (No. 63 Anyi Road), the site of the First Congress of the Communist Party of China (No. 76 Xingye Road) and Bowen Girls’ School (No. 127 Taicang Road), Party After the three major groups, the Sanzengli Ruins (No. 202-204, Linshan Road), where the central organs are located, and the former residence of Mao Zedong in 1924 (No. 7, Jiaxiuli, Lane 120, Maoming North Road) are four clusters. By exploring these communities, we can see a Mao Zedong who was striving for truth and belief, a Mao Zedong who had a local flavor and the feelings of a scholar-officer at the beginning of the founding of the party, a Mao Zedong who worked hard for the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and a Mao Zedong who had feelings for the country and the country. .

Key words: Mao Zedong; early years; Shanghai footprint

Mao Zedong and Shanghai, one is a great man who changed Chinese history, and the other is an important political stage in China for a century. The intersection of the two can often reflect changes in modern Chinese history. Mao Zedong has a deep connection with Shanghai. From March 1919 to September 1971, Mao Zedong came to Shanghai 57 times, and from March 1919 to July 1926, he came to Shanghai as many as 11 times. The glorious footprints left in Shanghai in this short period of 7 years are an important part of Mao Zedong’s long revolutionary career and laid an important foundation for his lifelong development. Mao Zedong’s early years of revolutionary activities in Shanghai coincided with the founding of the Communist Party of China and the first period of cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. He played an important role as one of the early important leaders of the party.

Looking for Mao Zedong’s 11 trips in Shanghai is of great significance for understanding Mao Zedong’s early life and ideological development. Due to their age, some of these old places have not survived. However, with the active efforts of party history departments and workers at all levels in Shanghai, some of Mao Zedong’s residences, meeting places, and workplaces have been carefully protected. There are four representative places in which Mao Zedong lived in 1920. The former residence (No. 63 Anyi Road); the second is the site of the First Party Congress (No. 76 Xingye Road) and Bowen Girls’ School (No. 127 Taicang Road); the third is the site of Sanzengli (Linshan Road), the site of the Central Organ after the Third Party Congress. No. 202-204); the fourth is the former residence of Mao Zedong in 1924 (No. 7 Jiaxiuli, Lane 120, Maoming North Road). These groups recorded the trajectory of Mao Zedong’s study and practice of Marxism in his early years.

1. No. 63 Anyi Road witnessed Mao Zedong’s transformation into a Marxist

The former residence of Mao Zedong in 1920, located at No. 63 Anyi Road, was No. 29 Minyuan South Lane, Hatong Road, before liberation. At present, it is a Shikumen protected building surrounded by the Kerry Center, a Grade-A building, which can be called a red landmark in the prosperous scene. This is a brick and wood structure building facing north along the street, with a construction area of ​​83 square meters. This building has two floors, the living room downstairs and the bedroom upstairs. Mao Zedong slept on the plank bed by the long French window in the north. At present, there are 555 brand cigarette boxes used by Mao Zedong, pencils, porcelain cups, porcelain spoons, porcelain plates, and a full set of 6 volumes of the “Communist Party” monthly magazine. This is Mao Zedong’s third residence in Shanghai. From May 5, 1920 to the beginning of July, Mao Zedong lived here for more than two months.

(1) Farewell to the members of Xinmin Society who went to France for work-study program

As early as March 14, 1919, when he first came to Shanghai, Mao Zedong, Xiao San and Wu Yuzhang went to the Bund twice on the 17th and 31st to bid farewell to international students studying in France, and took a group photo at Jing’an Temple Road (now Nanjing West Road). . In mid-December of that year, Mao Zedong went to Shanghai for the second time, still detouring from Wuhan to Shanghai to see off the family of four, including Cai Hesen, Xiang Jingyu, Cai Chang, and Mother Cai (Ge Jianhao), who went to France for a work-study program. It was only because the departure time of Cai Hesen and others was delayed that Mao Zedong could not stay for long, so he quickly left Shanghai and went to Beijing. On the third day of this third visit to Shanghai (May 8, 2020), Mao Zedong convened a total of 12 members of the Xinmin Society who were in Shanghai and who were going to work and study in France, and held a famous meeting at No. 480 Bansongyuan Road, Nanshi District. The “Bansong Garden” meeting determined the tasks, principles of activities, and membership procedures of the Xinmin Society. On May 11, Mao Zedong went to the Huangpu River to bid farewell to 6 members of the work-study program including Chen Zanzhou in France. From 1919 to 1920, more than 1,600 people from China went to France for work-study studies, of which 346 were from Hunan. In this year, Zhang Shizhao, a fellow from Hunan, helped raise 20,000 silver dollars in Shanghai as a work-study fund for the students. Mao Zedong still remembered this friendship deeply until the early days of the founding of New China.

(2) Carry out work-study mutual aid group practice

Although he was an active organizer of the work-study program in France, Mao Zedong was more willing to stay in Shanghai to conduct the work-study mutual aid group experiment and conduct in-depth research on the national conditions. The Shanghai Work-study Mutual Aid Group was initiated by Chen Duxiu and others on March 5, 1920. Its purpose was “part-time work-study, mutual aid and assistance”, requiring members to work six hours a day. Medical expenses, book fees, etc. are provided by the group. Mao Zedong and three other classmates lived in the experimental work-study life on Anyi Road. They “worked together, studied together, shared meals, and wore clothes together.” Mao Zedong once also worked for others to wash clothes in exchange for a meager income, talking about subsidizing expenses. The work-study mutual aid group’s experiment failed for more than a month. Mao Zedong set up a self-study club to conduct part-time work-study studies. At this time, the war between Zhiwan and Anhui was about to break out. Mao Zedong published articles such as “Hunan People Fight for Personality”, “Hunan People Go Further”, and “Hunan People’s Self-determination” in Shanghai’s “Current Affairs News”. The Reconstruction Promotion Association reverted to Zeng Yi’s book, which proposed self-determination and self-governance and the reform of Hunan. Under the active promotion of Mao Zedong and others, the democratic revolutionary movement in Hunan continued to rise.

(3) Realize great changes in thinking

During his two months in Shanghai, Mao Zedong visited Sun Yat-sen and the Communist International’s representative in China, Wei Jingsky. However, the biggest reward for Mao Zedong was to visit Chen Duxiu and hit it off very well. Chen Duxiu’s residence at that time was in Laoyuyangli, No. 2, Huanlong Road, two or three kilometers away from Mao Zedong’s residence. Mao Zedong often visited Chen Duxiu and talked about the plan of organizing the Hunan Reform Promotion Association and the Marxist books he had read. Chen Duxiu introduced to Mao Zedong his preparations for the establishment of the Communist Party. Compared with Chen Duxiu, who was more than ten years older than him, Mao Zedong always had a very high respect for him, and believed that “Tan Sitong before, and Chen Duxiu today, if he is a man of great courage, is truly incomparable to today’s vulgarism.” He believes that Chen Duxiu was the first to tell him that “there is Marxism in the world”. More than ten years later, in 1936, Mao Zedong still fondly recalled in an interview with the American journalist Snow: “Chen Duxiu’s words about his own beliefs may have been a crucial period in my life, which had an impact on me. Impressed.” “Once I had accepted that Marxism was the correct interpretation of history, my faith in Marxism had not wavered… By the summer of 1920, in theory, and to some extent in action, I had A Marxist.”

2. The First Party Congress Site Community and Mao Zedong’s Firm Communist Belief

Located at No. 76 Xingye Road, the party’s first congress site was originally No. 106 Wangzhi Road in the French Concession. At that time, it was the private residence (Li Mansion) of Li Hanjun and his elder brother Li Shucheng, a representative of the party. Bowen Girls’ School is located at No. 127 Taicang Road, only 200 meters away from the site of the first party congress. It was the residence of the delegates at that time, and lived here during Mao Zedong’s meeting. Representatives from Changsha, Jinan, Wuhan and Beijing lived in Bowen Girls’ School in the name of “Peking University Teachers and Students Summer Vacation Tour Group”, a total of 9 people. Among the 9 people, Bao Huiseng and Zhou Fohai, Wang Jinmei and Deng Enming, Dong Biwu and Chen Tanqiu, Liu Renjing and He Shuheng lived in one room respectively. Mao Zedong was tall and snored when he slept, so he was given extra “care” to live in a single room. His room was dark and had no bed, just a single bed on two benches.

(1) Invited to Shanghai to participate in the National Congress of the Party

Since the last time Mao Zedong bid farewell to Chen Duxiu and left Shanghai and returned to Hunan, he has devoted himself to the busy revolutionary work. In July 1920, Mao Zedong, He Shuheng and others planned the establishment of the Cultural Book Club, and also initiated the organization of the Russian Research Society, which often gathered members of the Xinmin Society to discuss the establishment of the Communist Party. Shortly thereafter, they sent Ren Bishi, Xiao Jinguang, Peng Shuzhi, Liu Shaoqi and others to study Russian in the Shanghai Foreign Languages ​​Society, and then transferred to Vladivostok to study in Soviet Russia. The Shanghai Foreign Languages ​​Society was chaired by Yang Mingzhai. At its peak, there were about 50 students, of which 22 were from Hunan. On June 29, 1921, Mao Zedong received a letter from Li Da, acting secretary of the Shanghai Communist Group. The letter stated that the Comintern had sent two representatives to Shanghai, and suggested that the communist groups from all over the country should immediately send representatives to Shanghai to hold a meeting to announce the establishment of the party. After receiving the letter, Mao Zedong and He Shuheng set off for Shanghai and arrived in Shanghai in early July. When Mao Zedong bid farewell to Xie Juezai in Changsha, due to the need for confidentiality, he did not state in the letter what meeting he was going to attend, but only used the words “invited by ○○○○○”, which in fact alluded to Marxism.

(2) Conscientiously perform duties at a large meeting of the party

From July 23, 1921 to the beginning of August, during the more than a week of the meeting, Mao Zedong and Zhou Fohai were appointed to be the minutes of the meeting. During the meeting, Mao Zedong was loyal to his duties and made careful records. At the second meeting on the 24th, Mao Zedong made the only systematic speech, reporting the establishment of the Changsha communist group, the propaganda of Marxism, the development of the labor movement and the lessons learned. Bao Huiseng once recalled: “Mao Zedong was old-fashioned and taciturn. If he wanted to speak, he was calm and powerful.” Li Da’s impression of Mao Zedong was that he “seldom speaks, but he pays great attention to listening to other people’s speeches.” Zhang Guotao described Mao Zedong as “a more active white-faced scholar, wearing a long gown, but he couldn’t take off the rusticity of Hunan people. Although his common sense was quite rich, his understanding of Marxism was not much better than Wang Jinmei and Deng Enming.” Another early Communist, Liu Renjing, wrote: “Mao Zedong gave me a strange impression, and I found in him the simplicity of rural youth – he was wearing a pair of tattered cloth shoes and a sackcloth coat, on the beach in Shanghai, It’s rare to see such a person. But I also found the scent of Baume & Mercier in him.”

(3) Carry forward the great spirit of the party

According to Li Da’s recollection, judging from the situation of the communist groups in various places at that time, the organization of Changsha was relatively unified and tidy. Mao Zedong has a lot of practical experience, but he is not as proficient in foreign languages ​​and read Marx’s works as Li Hanjun, Li Da and others here, so he often keeps silent. At the meeting, many people quoted the classics and involved many theoretical issues, while Mao Zedong paid great attention to thinking and digesting the opinions of his comrades. When the comrades saw his air, they always said that he was “nervous”, but they didn’t know that he was planning how to promote his work after returning to Changsha. Shortly after leaving Shanghai and returning to Changsha, Mao Zedong founded the first provincial party organization of the Communist Party of China, the Hunan Branch of the Communist Party of China (later renamed the Executive Committee of the Hunan District of the Communist Party of China), and served as the secretary himself. A year later, he resigned from the primary school attached to the first division and the teaching of Chinese, and officially became a professional revolutionary. Outside the party’s convening meeting, Mao Zedong made a prediction that “the Communist Party may rule China in 30 to 50 years”. At that time, his friend Xiao Zisheng thought it was just empty words, but history proved that Mao Zedong’s prediction was not only correct but also great.

3. The revolutionary spirit manifested in San Zengli

Sanzengli, located at No. 202-204 Linshan Road, is the former site of the Party’s three post-Central Bureau organs. Unfortunately, it was destroyed by the Japanese war in the “January 28” Incident in 1932. It was originally a two-story Shikumen house, named after three families with the surname of Zeng who lived there. In early September 1923, Mao Zedong, Yang Kaihui and his wife, Cai Hesen, Xiang Jingyu and his wife, and Luo Zhanglong’s family lived here. Under the cover of their occupation of guarding customs, they call themselves a family to the outside world. People often have meetings at night, and they often play mahjong in underground activities. As the central hub, countless central manuscripts and documents are released from here. Later, the central authorities moved to Yunnan Road, Qinghai Road, Xikang Road, Chengdu North Road and other places one after another, but the time was not very long. At present, the Memorial Hall of the Central Bureau of the Third Party Central Committee has been built at No. 118 Zhejiang North Road, where many working scenes of the central organs are restored.

(1) Regret for missing the opportunity to participate in the Party’s Second National Congress

In 1922, Mao Zedong came to Shanghai from Changsha twice in March and May. In March, he came to Shanghai to attend the memorial meeting of his comrades-in-arms Huang Ai and Pang Renquan, in order to accuse the Hunan warlord Zhao Hengti of the crimes. In May, he came to Shanghai to participate in the party’s second congress. However, the political environment in Shanghai was still severe at that time. The central government chose Fudeli (Li Da’s residence) as the meeting place. This is the connection between the French Concession and the public concession. Unremarkable. The complex geographical environment made Mao Zedong “lost”. In February 1936, Mao Zedong talked with Snow in the cave of Baoan in northern Shaanxi and recalled this experience: “In May 1922, the Hunan Party Organization… I was the secretary at that time and was sent to Shanghai to help the movement against Zhao Hengti. That summer, the second party congress was held in Shanghai. I wanted to attend, but I forgot where the meeting was, and I couldn’t find any comrades, so I couldn’t attend.” There is also information that Liu Shaoqi participated in the party as a staff member. After the meeting, it was conveyed to Mao Zedong according to Chen Duxiu’s instructions.

(2) The three major leaders of the party were elected to the Central Bureau

Relocating the central organs from Guangzhou to Shanghai was an important decision made by the three major parties of the party. Shanghai is the place with the largest and most concentrated working class in modern times, and it has a basic and supporting function for the revolutionary activities led by the party. There was no strict household registration management in modern Shanghai, and the traditional Baojia system could be implemented in other cities, but it could not be implemented or not completely implemented in Shanghai. These two favorable conditions made modern Shanghai characterized by heterogeneity, anonymity, and mobility, providing an ideal place for a secret struggle led by the central government. Therefore, the 1st, 2nd, and 4th Party Congresses were all held in Shanghai, and eight other Central Plenary Sessions were also held in Shanghai. On June 12, 1923, the Third Party Congress was held in Guangzhou to elect Chen Duxiu, Mao Zedong, Luo Zhanglong, Cai Hesen and Tan Pingshan to organize the Central Bureau. Among them, Chen Duxiu is the chairman of the Central Bureau, and Mao Zedong is the secretary of the Central Bureau, assisting the chairman in handling the daily work of the Central Committee. After the meeting, it was decided that all five members of the Central Bureau except Tan Pingshan who stayed in Guangzhou, Mao Zedong and the other four all came to Shanghai from Guangzhou to work.

(3) Running back and forth for the revolution

Throughout 1923, Mao Zedong traveled back and forth between Changsha, Shanghai and Guangzhou. In April, he left Changsha for Shanghai to work in the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. In early June, he left Shanghai for Guangzhou to attend the three major preparatory meetings of the party. In late July, he left Guangzhou to Shanghai to represent the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China to attend the sixth meeting of the Shanghai Prefectural and District Committee of the Communist Party of China. In the first ten days of September, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China moved from Guangzhou to Shanghai, and Mao Zedong, Cai Hesen, Xiang Jingyu and Luo Zhanglong officially moved into Sanzengli. But only a few days later, on September 16, Mao Zedong, following the decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, left Shanghai and returned to Changsha to prepare for the establishment of the Hunan Kuomintang organization. At the end of December, he was notified by the Central Committee to leave Changsha for Shanghai, and was going to go to Guangzhou to attend the first National Congress of the Kuomintang. The long-term travel back and forth made Yang Kaihui live in Sanzengli with Mao Anying and Mao Anqing most of the time. The three of them took a group photo. In the photo, Yang Kaihui has a solemn expression, looking lonely and melancholy. Later, Yang Kaihui was killed by Hunan warlord He Jian in Changsha in November 1930, at the age of 29. Due to the confidentiality discipline within the party, Mao Zedong failed to take a family photo with Yang Kaihui’s mother and son, leaving a lifetime of regrets.

4. Jiaxiuli and Mao Zedong’s family and country feelings

Located in Jiaxiuli, No. 7, Lane 120, Maoming North Road, it was the place where Mao Zedong lived and worked in Shanghai for the ninth time in February 1924. This is the residence he has lived in Shanghai for the longest time, and this period is also the longest time for him to carry out revolutionary work with Yang Kaihui. This house was built in 1915 and faces north. It is a typical brick-wood structure and old-fashioned Shikumen residence. Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui’s bedroom and study are in the front wing downstairs, with wooden beds and cabinets, and a three-bucket desk. Yang’s mother and two children’s bedrooms are in the back room, and there is a cradle in the room, because An Qing was born only a few years ago. months. Cai Hesen and Xiang Jingyu lived in the upstairs wing, and downstairs there was a hall where the two families shared guests. In the courtyard, there are statues of Mao Zedong’s family taking a nap under the bamboo forest, as well as a green brick road. In this former residence, copies of Mao Zedong’s documents and letters on Kuomintang party affairs are currently preserved, many of which were originally kept in the Kuomintang Party History Museum in Taipei.

(1) Taking on the important tasks of the “two parties”

At the National Party Congress held in Guangzhou on January 20, 1924, the 31-year-old Mao Zedong was selected as an alternate executive member of the Central Committee, and was appointed as a member of the constitution review committee, and he spoke many times at the meeting. After the meeting, Mao Zedong was sent to the Shanghai Executive Department and came to Shanghai in mid-February. The Shanghai Executive Department is the Kuomintang’s largest executive department outside Guangzhou, with jurisdiction over Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Shanghai. In the context of the formal formation of the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, Mao Zedong served as the secretary of the Central Bureau of the Communist Party of China and the director of the organization. work. During his stay in Shanghai, Mao Zedong actively sought the support of the progressive forces of the Kuomintang and resolutely opposed the sabotage of the rightists of the Kuomintang. At that time, the right-wing activities of the Kuomintang were very rampant, and even Shao Lizi, a member of the old alliance, was injured by right-wing elements. Under this circumstance, Mao Zedong, Yun Daiying, Deng Zhongxia and others jointly wrote to Sun Yat-sen several times to demand severe punishment of Ye Chuyu, who later resigned and left Shanghai voluntarily. In this way, Mao Zedong presided over the work of the Shanghai Executive Department of the Kuomintang in the name of an alternate executive committee member of the Kuomintang Central Committee and secretary of the Organization Department, and became the de facto central figure in the Shanghai Executive Department. In the tit-for-tat struggle against the rightists of the Kuomintang, the young Mao Zedong accumulated a lot of valuable experience and grew up quickly.

(2) Stable and busy work rhythm

The former site of the Shanghai Executive Department of the Kuomintang is located at No. 180 Nanchang Road today. It was No. 44 Huanlong Road in those days. It is only 1 km away from Jiaxiuli, where Mao Zedong lived. Not far from here, No. 2, Lane 100, Nanchang Road, used to be the former site of the editorial office of “New Youth”, and it was also the place where the Chinese Communist Party was founded. Chen Duxiu lived here for a long time. On the short Nanchang Road, at the eastern end is the birthplace of the Communist Party of China – the site of a major party congress. Mao Zedong’s short journey to work every day has to pass through so many historical landmarks, which can be called a legend. Mao Zedong’s main work at that time included the reorganization of the Kuomintang, the re-registration of Kuomintang members, the construction of Kuomintang grassroots organizations, and the enrollment of the Whampoa Military Academy. Since the Kuomintang organization is very lax, it is not easy to do these jobs. For example, after the reorganization of the Kuomintang, many old members of the Kuomintang did not buy it. Xie Chi, a famous rightist veteran, slapped the table in protest. However, under Mao Zedong’s persuasion, Xie Chi finally filled out the form, and other Kuomintang members have cooperated with the registration work since then. Mao Zedong also often went to Jiangsu counties around Shanghai to inspect the work of party building. In May of that year, he was invited by Hou Shaoqiu, the head of the Kuomintang Shanghai 4th District Party Headquarters, to come to Songjiang, where the revolutionary situation was high, to guide the local Kuomintang organization work. At that time, the Whampoa Military Academy had been established in Guangzhou, and the students from the Yangtze River Basin and the northern provinces took the re-examination in Shanghai. During this period, Mao Zedong personally selected and introduced a group of Communist Party members such as Jiang Xianyun, Wu Wensheng, Xu Xiangqian, and Zhang Jichun to study at the Whampoa Military Academy, and later these people became the backbone of our party’s military.

(3) Enjoy the warm time of family happiness

In early June 1924, Yang Kaihui brought two-year-old Anying and newly-born An Qing to Shanghai from Changsha, along with her mother Xiang Zhenxi. The nearly six months in the second half of 1924 was the longest period for Yang Kaihui and her children to accompany Mao Zedong, and it was also a rare happy time for Mao Zedong since he participated in the revolution. In Jiaxiu, in addition to taking care of housework, helping Mao Zedong organize materials, and transcribing manuscripts, Yang Kaihui often went to Xiaoshadu Road Workers Night School to give lectures and teach workers cultural knowledge. Sometimes, Mao Zedong also carried his eldest son Mao Anying to listen to his wife in the classroom, and the two had a very tacit understanding. In the eyes of neighbors, Mao Zedong is a young man who leaves early and returns late. He works very hard, but his family life is very happy. According to the existing salary manual for the staff of the Shanghai Executive Department of the Kuomintang, Mao Zedong’s monthly salary at that time was 120 silver dollars, which cannot be considered low. However, as the struggle between the Communist Party and the Kuomintang rightists in the Shanghai Executive Department gradually became public, the listed salaries were not paid on time. In November of the same year, Mao Zedong and other 14 people jointly wrote a letter to Sun Yat-sen to reflect on the issue of unpaid wages, but in the end it was nothing. At the end of that year, Mao Zedong resigned from the Kuomintang Shanghai Executive Department due to neurasthenia and other physical reasons, and returned to Hunan to recuperate with his wife and children, thus ending this unforgettable time in Shanghai.

Mao Zedong had a very close relationship with Shanghai. The activities in Shanghai in his early years reflected his early revolutionary experience and some important historical events in his life from different angles. By looking for Mao Zedong’s footprints in Shanghai in his early years, we saw a Mao Zedong who was struggling to pursue truth and belief, a Mao Zedong who had a local flavor and a scholar-official feeling at the beginning of the party, and a Mao Zedong who worked hard for the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. , and also saw a Mao Zedong with family and country feelings. Mao Zedong’s early activities in Shanghai gave him a deeper understanding of China’s basic national conditions. In early November 1926, Mao Zedong went from Guangzhou to Shanghai, which was his last visit to Shanghai before the founding of New China. Under the auspices of Mao Zedong, the “Current Agricultural Movement Plan” formulated by the Central Agricultural Committee stated: “Under the current situation, the development of the agricultural movement should follow the principle of concentration. The development of the four provinces of Henan.” Soon, he left Shanghai via Nanchang to Wuhan to prepare the National Farmers Association, lead the national farmers’ movement, and finally contributed to the strategic shift of the Party’s work focus from the cities to the countryside.

Exploring Mao Zedong’s revolutionary footprint in Shanghai in his early years has the following enlightenment.

First, Mao Zedong became a staunch Marxist after many comparisons and careful consideration. Before Mao Zedong came to Shanghai, under the influence of the New Culture Movement and the May Fourth Movement, Hunan launched a vigorous expulsion (Jing Yao) movement. Before and during Shanghai in 1920, Mao Zedong was highly praised by Chen Duxiu. During his stay in Shanghai, Mao Zedong went deep into revolutionary practice, tried and gradually denied different social trends such as anarchism and work-studyism. Mao Zedong’s visit to Shanghai to meet Chen Duxiu, who was planning to build the Communist Party of China, and grew up as a Marxist, seems to be accidental, but it is actually inevitable. As the so-called “opportunity favors the prepared mind”, Mao Zedong had already been an avid reader and active contributor to “New Youth” before he contacted Chen Duxiu, and had a deep understanding of Chen Duxiu’s thoughts and propositions. Therefore, Mao Zedong was highly praised and fully trusted by Chen Duxiu. The two had a strong ideological resonance, and the latter became the ideological leader of the former. What is touching is that once Mao Zedong took Marxism as his belief, he remained unshakable and unshakable throughout his life.

Second, Mao Zedong’s eagerness to learn, deep thinking, and courage to practice made him a leader of the party step by step. “Rural youth, famous for their morale”, was the outstanding impression that Mao Zedong left on the first day of the party in 1921. Because he is a “village youth”, he appears more simple and down-to-earth than the representatives of famous universities or those with overseas study backgrounds. China was a semi-feudal and semi-colonial agricultural country at that time. To achieve national independence and national liberation, the farmers at the bottom of society must first obtain tangible benefits. Coming from a peasant background, Mao Zedong deeply understood the suffering of peasants and what they needed most, and was more willing to go deep into the countryside to start a revolution. This is an important reason and condition for him to eventually become a great leader. Because of his “famous morale”, Mao Zedong has lofty aspirations and lofty goals, and will not be confused by the clouds of material fame and fortune. In the following revolutionary career, Mao Zedong resolutely gave up the opportunity to work in the high-level central government in Shanghai, and was willing to go to the countryside to “make friends with King Shanda”, which was inseparable from his “famous morale” in his bones. Judging from the memories of some of the major delegates, Mao Zedong did not leave more impressions on others at that time, but in the future course of the revolution, Mao Zedong gradually stood out, his talents and abilities were recognized and recognized by the whole party, and he became a leader. It is the choice of history and people.

Third, Mao Zedong’s outstanding talents made important contributions to the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party and the development of the Kuomintang. Although Mao Zedong was unable to participate in the second party congress for some reason, he was elected to the Politburo at the party’s third party and became Chen Duxiu’s secretary. This shows that in the more than two years after the convening of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the construction of the Hunan Party organization in charge of Mao Zedong has been very effective. In Shanghai’s Shiliyangchang, Mao Zedong had a deep understanding of the economic plunder of China by international capitalist imperialism, and also had a deep understanding of the reactionary rule of the Beiyang warlords over the people. He deeply felt that the young Chinese Communist Party must temporarily abandon their most radical ideas and cooperate with the revolutionary wing of the Kuomintang. Due to Mao Zedong’s active activities, ordinary young people, workers and even citizens in Shanghai had a new understanding of the reorganized Kuomintang, understood and supported Sun Yat-sen’s reinterpretation of the New Three Principles of the People and the three major policies of alliance with Russia, the Communist Party, and assistance to farmers and workers. The grassroots of the Kuomintang Party organization construction has made great progress.

Fourth, Mao Zedong’s selfless work spirit and family and country feelings are the precious spiritual wealth of our party. More and more party history experts believe that in the 10 months of 1924, Mao Zedong accumulated very valuable experience for the subsequent revolutionary work. Here, he made his first appearance and was entrusted with important tasks. More importantly, Mao Zedong had a deep understanding of the Kuomintang, especially the right wing. He was one of the early leaders of our party who realized the serious danger of the right wing of the Kuomintang and fought tit-for-tat against it. Mao Zedong realized that at present and in the recent period, China is still dominated by warlords, so the politics is darker, the finances are more disordered, and the people are living in dire straits. But it is precisely because of this that a more intense social revolution will be stimulated, and Mao Zedong is full of confidence in this. In order to devote himself to the revolution, Mao Zedong lived in exile, fought in the north and the south, and spent less time with his family members. Mao Zedong’s spirit of giving up his small family for the revolution will always be deeply cherished by future generations.

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