Why are there so many Indian CEOs in the US?

“Why the Chinese are not as good as the Indians in the major technology companies in the United States” is a long-standing topic in the American Chinese circle. They say that Indians are born with language advantages, that Indians like to hold groups, and Chinese like to tear down the stage, that Chinese traditional culture causes character disadvantages, that China can retain talents because China is strong, and that China’s Internet is developed. attracted many people back home. Not that all of these are wrong, but I think it boils down to the difference in base size. Especially the difference in the number of immigrants. Some of the Indians who are more familiar with CEOs in large companies, such as Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella, Google CEO Sundar Pichai, and Twitter’s new CEO Parag Agrawal, IBM CEO Arvind Krishna, Adobe CEO Shantanu Narayen, Palo Nikesh Arora, CEO of Alto Network, Ajaypal Singh Banga, CEO of MasterCard, and Indra Nooyi, CEO of PepsiCo, are first-generation Indian-born immigrants to the United States. In the past three decades, the number of immigrants from India has been significantly higher than that of China. In three decades, first-generation immigrants from India have increased by 2.2 million, while first-generation immigrants from China have increased by only 1.56 million. In 1990, there were 470,000 fewer people born in India than those born in China, or less than half. But in 2019, the number of people from India exceeded a full 200,000. If you look at the overall increase in the number of first-generation immigrants, the comparison may not be large enough. 2.2 million versus 1.56 million, still on the same order of magnitude. But if you just look at the number of immigrants in the tech industry, the difference is huge. Here’s the number of H-1B petitions approved over the past two decades: Taken together, from FY2001 to FY2021, a total of 3.89 million H-1B petitions from India were approved, compared to only 61 from China million copies. In other words, the bold line reads: Over the past three decades, the ratio of people who have come to the United States from India and China to work in the tech industry is 6:1! And the long-term trend of this ratio is rising. From fiscal year 2001 to fiscal year 2021, the ratio of approved H-1B applications from India and China has gradually increased from about 4:1 in the early years to 8:1 in previous years (but it has fallen back in the past two years). Some people say that when China is strong, it can retain talents. From the data point of view, this statement is true. Therefore, I don’t think other languages, traditional culture, personality, reunion vs breaking down, the attractiveness of returning to China for development, etc., are not the main factors. The main factor is the large base. And from the trend point of view, the gap in the number of people is not narrowing. In the next ten or twenty years, people may continue to feel that “Chinese people are not as good as Indians in major American technology companies.” Attachment: 1. Data sources All H-1B data come from the annual official report of the US Immigration Service (www.uscis.gov) of the number of foreign-born population in the United States: https://ift.tt/LsRd05M 2. Statistics In USCIS’s official H-1B data, some years are “Approved H-1B Beneficiaries”, and some years are “H-1B petitions received”. Therefore, the absolute figures of each year are not necessarily comparable. The main concern is the relative ratio of China and India each year. H-1B data about “China”, some years say “China, Mainland”, and some years say “China, People’s Republic”. Considering the overall size, the difference is small. 3. Other considerations H-1B application being approved does not mean that there is an H-1B visa. Application (petition) is not the same as visa (visa). For example, in 2015, USCIS approved 275,317 H-1B petitions, but the State Department issued only 172,748 H-1B visas. Having an H-1B visa does not mean you will come to work. Come to work and work hours. Some work for a while and go back, and some become green cards and do not need H-1B visas. The green card schedule is based on the country of birth. It is also the EB-2 and EB-3 green cards. The schedule time for India and China is different. Generally speaking, the schedule in India is longer than that in China. Long, much longer. For example, as of February 2022, India’s EB-2 and EB-3 are scheduled to January 1, 2013 and January 15, 2012, respectively; China’s EB-2 and EB-3 are scheduled to March 2019, respectively. 1st March and 22nd March 2018. H-1B visas are also not all in the computer and IT industries, although more than half of H-1Bs are in the IT industry (data source: https://ift.tt/K7hfJHC .aspx, according to H1B Visa NAICS Industry, computer and electronic communication related industries together account for 55%). But then again, there are also many H-1Bs who were converted later. The H-1B visa isn’t the only visa available to work in the U.S. computer industry. The L-1 visa can also come to work in the United States. I myself took the L-1 visa. Also, during the Obama administration in 2015, the Department of Homeland Security announced that some H-4s (visas issued to spouses of H-1Bs) would be allowed to work. Anyway, although there are so many differences and details, in general, we can use the number of H-1B approvals over the years as a good proxy metric to look at the approximate proportion of people from China and India in the IT industry in the United States .

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