Automotive semiconductors: IGBTs open up automotive energy flow, and shortages accelerate domestic substitution (with report)

core point

Driven by both policy and market, sales of new energy vehicles continued to strengthen in June. The sales of major new energy vehicles increased significantly in June, with BYD, Aian, and Xiaopeng ranking the top three in sales. The monthly sales of new energy vehicles from 7 local car manufacturers exceeded 10,000 units, and the monthly sales of Wenjie M5 exceeded 7,000 units; According to the forecast of the China Passenger Car Association, the retail sales of new energy vehicles in June is expected to exceed 500,000 units, a record high. Previously, the market recovered rapidly in May, and parts and components rebounded year-on-year: 358,000 units of motor electronic control (MoM + 26.1%, YoY + 71.2%), 323,000 units of OBC (MoM + 23.8%, YoY + 81.8 %). Correspondingly, in May, 356,000 sets of power modules were installed in new energy insurance passenger cars, of which IGBT solutions accounted for 84.0%, silicon carbide MOSFET solutions accounted for 3.8%, and SiMOSFET solutions accounted for 12.2%.

IGBTs are the main power semiconductor devices in high voltage, high speed, high current applications. As a compound power semiconductor device, IGBT has the advantages of high input impedance of MOSFET, low control power, fast switching speed, large BJT on-state current, low on-state voltage, and low loss; on this basis, IGBT structure design from trench to reduction The evolution from thin to micro trenches has achieved continuous optimization of parameters such as electric field distribution, junction temperature, and short-circuit capability: Taking Infineon as an example, 7 generations of IGBT products have been launched.

IGBTs are key connectors for automotive power conversion. IGBT devices are widely used in new energy vehicle main inverters, on-board chargers (OBC), boost converters and auxiliary systems. Among them, the main inverter IGBT is mainly in the form of modules, pure electric vehicles need 1-2, and hybrid vehicles need 2-3, and the unit price ranges from 650 yuan to 2,000 yuan; at the same time, the lower cost IGBT single tube The solution is gradually infiltrating: taking a 120KW motor as an example, the cost of the single-tube solution is about 40% lower than that of the module solution. In addition, because auto parts are often exposed to high temperature, high humidity, and high pressure environments, automotive-grade semiconductors are required to withstand a temperature range of -40°C-150°C (industrial grade: -40-105°C) and a product life of 15 Years and above, so automotive IGBT technology is difficult and packaging requirements are high.

In 2025, the global new energy vehicle IGBT market space will increase to more than 31.88 billion yuan. Under the 400V voltage platform used by most automobiles, the cost of the silicon carbide MOSFET solution is 3.5 times that of the silicon-based IGBT solution, and the IGBT is the best choice considering performance and cost. Therefore, we expect that the global new energy vehicle IGBT market will increase from 9.99 billion yuan to 31.88 billion yuan in 21-25, of which the IGBT single-tube market will increase from 1.91 billion yuan to 5.73 billion yuan, and the module market will increase from 8.04 billion yuan to 26.15 billion yuan; China’s new energy vehicle IGBT market will increase from 4.8 billion yuan to 15.67 billion yuan, of which the IGBT single-tube market will increase from 920 million yuan to 2.43 billion yuan, and the module market will increase from 3.8 billion yuan to 13.24 billion yuan.

The shortage of stock accelerates localization and substitution, and Chinese IGBT manufacturers welcome opportunities for rapid development. Under the catalysis of automobile core shortage, my country’s automotive IGBT ecological chain is becoming more and more mature. According to NE Times data, in May 2022, my country’s new energy insurance passenger car IGBT power modules installed about 298,000 sets, including BYD, Times Electric, Sri Lanka Da Semiconductor and Silan Micro have achieved mass supply: BYD Semiconductor carries about 7.2 sets (accounting for 24%), Star Semiconductor carries about 62,000 sets (accounting for 21%), and Times Electric carries about 39,000 sets (accounting for 21%). 13%), Silan Micro carried 6,000 units (accounting for 2%), and the localization penetration rate was nearly 60%. In the future, with the increase in production capacity of various companies, it is expected that the peak period of domestic replacement of IGBTs for new energy vehicles will be ushered in from the second half of 22 to 23.

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