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Jesus was crucified and crucified, generally in AD 30. Soon afterward, presumably the disciples began to collect his teachings and deduce his actions. First by word of mouth, then in written form, and gradually, with the rise of a new religion, there were numerous Gospels. The handed down Gospels, no matter the orthodox heresy, are the names of later generations. The disciples of Jesus were Galileans in northern Palestine, speaking the Aramaic dialect of Galilee – except perhaps Judas, some scholars speculated that he was from the south, fervently patriotic, had joined the Dagger Party, sicarii, and assassinated the “collaborators” who had defected to Rome – They were from humble origins, fishing and farming and selling labor, as well as tax collectors and prostitutes, Mark 2:15, Matthew 21:31, Luke 7:37. A group of “uneducated people”, anthropoi agrammatoi, Acts 4:13, seems impossible to understand Greek, study rhetoric and the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible), and make a Gospel Come (Ellman, pp. 71-77). Jesus “speaking but not doing” is also illiterate, in the eyes of the scribes and priests. There is only one place in the scriptures where he writes, the “harlot” fragment of the Gospel of John: “Jesus bent down and wrote with his finger on the ground” John 8:6. But that story is not contained in the early manuscripts, the godfather, and the ancient translations, and was added by later generations. And the “Gospel of Luke” says that Jesus went to the temple at the age of twelve to argue with the scribes, and at the beginning of his preaching, he entered the “synagogue” of the small village of Nazareth to recite the scriptures, Luke 2:46, 4:16-19, which is pious The legend, pia fraus. No wonder the villagers were amazed: “Isn’t he a carpenter? Maria’s son”, “what wisdom has he received”? Mark 6:2-3, Matthew 13:54-55. “How does this person know how to read without going to school?” The Jews who heard him asked, John 7:15. The answer can only be a miracle, that the Son of Man “was in the miraculous power of the Holy Spirit,” Luke 4:14. The Four Gospels in the New Testament, Mark, Matthew, Luke and John, were written between forty and eighty years after the crucifixion of Christ (see the Torah chronology). Many quotations and stories can be traced back to the life of the “Prophet of Galilee”, although the holy book is not “objective and neutral” historical research, and the description is not without “resentment”, ira et studio (Tacitus). Its Greek is not an example of elegance either—if the New Testament was a holy word, Nietzsche said, God did not learn Greek well—but it is simple, powerful, and full of rhetoric, and the author should have been educated, Not the bottom people. If the source is in the first generation of disciples, there is a process of translation from Aramaic or rewriting and editing in Greek to meet the different needs of the congregations, ekklesia, in different places. Influenced by oral culture, the ancients wrote books and established biographies, which could be based on memory or play, and created dialogues “according to the law of probability or necessity”; therefore, the character and image of Jesus described were different. Tradition says, “Mark” speaks of suffering, and belongs to Rome, and the author is the assistant of Peter the great disciple, note on Acts 12:12; “Matthew” emphasizes instruction, and belongs to Damascus; “Luke” expresses consolation, and belongs to Antioch, author Physician, “co-laborer” of the apostle Paul, note on Col. 4:14; “John,” mystical and sublime, belongs to Ephesus. These apparent differences in style and plot reflect the varied experiences of the various societies of the primitive church as “the body of Christ” (Wells, p. 8). The Gospel of Matthew ranks first among the four Gospels, with neat text and well-proportioned structure. There are five precepts, each with its own theme: one “mountain”, Matthew 5:3-7:27, two “apostles”, 10:5-42, three “allegations”, 13:2-52, four “congregation” , 18:1-35, V “The Last Days,” 24:4-25:46. Another characteristic is that he likes to use scriptures (cited in the Septuagint) to “verify” the deeds of Jesus. The ancients thought it was compiled from an Aramaic Gospel (Eusebius Ecclesiastical History 3:39), but there is no transcript or circumstantial evidence. Although the author is a Jew, he does not hide his hostility to his people; he not only cursed the Pharisees, 23:13 and below, but also excused Rome everywhere, blaming his fellow citizens for the murder of Christ, and made them betrayed to the trial The governor of the Son of Man shouted, “Let the blood of [Jesus] be [on] us, our children! 27:25. Perhaps the gospel of the prophets of Galilee was not reported to the house of Israel on Mount Zion, Isaiah 40:9. The good news of his salvation is to comfort those who are starving and weeping, that is, all suffering spirits “hatred, rejected, and reviled, whose names are cast aside as evil,” Luke 6:20-22. As for the rich, the one who is content and laughing today, regardless of the people and foreigners, is more difficult to enter into the kingdom of heaven than a camel through the eye of a needle, Mark 10:25, Matthew 19:24, Luke 18:25. 3 Blessed are the wretched souls, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them. 4 Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. 5 Blessed are the obedient, for they shall inherit the blessed land. 6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. 7 Blessed are the merciful, for they shall have mercy. 8 Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. 9 Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God. 10 Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, because the kingdom of heaven belongs to them. 11 Blessed are you, if you are reviled and persecuted, slandered and slandered in every way for my sake; 12 You should rejoice, for your reward in heaven will be abundant, just as the prophets before them were persecuted. Note 5:3 Blessed, makarioi, traditional praise, Psalm 1:1, 33:12, Proverbs 3:13. Bitter spirit, ptochoi to pneumati, “to curl up in the spirit/begging/absolutely poor”, metaphor for poverty and lowliness, 2 Samuel 1:10, Isaiah 38:15, Job 3:20, Proverbs 31:6. Kingdom of Heaven: Euphemism of God’s Eternal Reign, Kingdom of God, Psalm 145:11-13, Daniel 3:33, 7:14. “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” is the slogan Jesus took from his teacher John the Baptist, Matthew 3:2, 4:17. 5:4 Those who mourn: generally the oppressed, the righteous. Comfort will be given: implying retribution, the LORD’s “year of favor” and “day of vengeance” is in sight, Isaiah 61:2. 5:5 Submissive, praeis, humble, humble, especially attitude toward God, n. 12:3. Speak the Septuagint, Psalm 37:11. Blessed land, ge, or as land, downplays Jesus’ line of preaching, or the relationship of the gospel to Israel, 10:5. 5:6 Thirsting for righteousness: Righteousness, alluding to the Holy Word, Psalm 107:5, Amos 8:11-12. 5:7 mercy/have mercy: love your neighbor as yourself, and be blessed by God, 6:14, 7:1, Prov 14:21. For the Father will have mercy on his faithful servants, Exodus 33:19, Deuteronomy 32:36. 5:8 Purity of heart: Emphasis on keeping pure in heart, note 15:18, Psalm 24:4, 51:10. Seeing God: being saved and entering the kingdom of heaven, Rev. 22:4. 5:9 Making peace: living in harmony with people, especially within the congregation, Heb 12:14. See note at 10:34 (“The Sword”). Son of God, hyioi theou, “Son of God”, one who is chosen by God to establish an intimate relationship, such as an angel, a people, or an anointed king, n. 4:3; 5:10 Persecuted for the sake of righteousness: encouragement to be ready to sacrifice, 1 Peter 3:14. 5:11 Reviled/slandered for my sake: regarded as a heretic because of a different “line”, ostracized and criticized by the tribe and brothers in the congregation, 10:17-18, 13:57, Acts 5:41 . 5:12 As the prophets before them were persecuted: Sanshen persecuted, believers were compared to prophets, and even martyred and justified, 23:34-35, Hebrews 10:33 below.
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