Original link: http://vis.pku.edu.cn/blog/%E6%9A%91%E6%9C%9F%E5%AD%A6%E6%A0%A1%E8%AF%BE%E7% A8%8B%E8%AE%BE%E8%AE%A1%E4%BD%9C%E5%93%81-%E8%81%9A%E6%9C%A8%E4%B8%BA%E5%AE %87-%E5%8F%AF%E8%A7%86%E5%8C%96%E7%B3%BB%E7%BB%9F/
The ancients cut down trees, built houses, built high-rise buildings from the ground, the legacy of the Tang Dynasty, the construction of the Song Dynasty, and the construction of the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, all with ingenuity and wisdom. The wooden structure building is a three-dimensional history book. It has gone through vast beacon fires, technological progress, and religious changes, and recorded war civilization, dynasties change and daily life. For a long time, wooden architecture has assumed an important historical position in the history of Chinese architecture, but it has been ignored and forgotten for a long time. Even Chinese scholars want to study wooden architecture, and they also need to read the literature of neighboring Japan. In some monographs, it was not until the efforts made by Liang Sicheng in this area in modern times that the value of ancient Chinese wooden buildings was reproduced in the world.
The ancients gathered wood as a space, and today people climb the eaves to survey and map, penetrate the walls and penetrate the walls. Through multi-dimensional data, visual expression and dynamic interaction, this project strives to present a dialogue between ancient and modern focusing on wooden buildings.
Data collection and organization
The team crawled Wikipedia’s list of data on timber-framed buildings. About 140 pieces of wooden building data in the Tang, Southern Song, Northern Song, Five Dynasties, Liao, Jin and other periods were obtained. In addition to the basic building name, construction age, and coordinates, the team also collected additional data items such as building surface width, depth, bucket arch shape, and building section drawings. The data dimension of this project can be divided into two parts: spatiotemporal data such as geographic location, building repair/destruction timeline, etc.; artistic form data such as roof shape, building structure, bucket arch style, etc.
Visualization and Interaction Design
This work uses a map to show the distribution of wooden buildings in various provinces on the map. By zooming in and out, you can view buildings specific to a certain province, and you can also see the distribution of wooden buildings throughout China. Each circle represents a building, the color of the circle depicts different structural styles, and the size of the circle indicates the width and depth of the building.
Figure 1 Map of wooden buildings
The time axis on the right represents the distribution of dynasties, and the strip-shaped area on the left side of the time axis depicts the building’s own area and the area of the same building complex. Select the corresponding building on the timeline to view the specific information of the building, such as a brief introduction and a real-life overview.
Figure 2 View the specific information of the building
After selecting the corresponding building, you can learn about the eaves, bucket arches, structures and other components of the wooden building on the hand-painted building section line draft, and further understand the specific content information of the relevant building.
Figure 3 Sectional view of the building
The visualization provides architectural line drawings and introductions with structural style, bucket arch system, and roof shape as classification units.
Figure 4 Different building structure styles
Structural styles of specific timber buildings can be seen. Readers who are interested in artistic styles such as architectural bucket arches and roof shapes can go further and choose the corresponding architectural structure for a more in-depth understanding, or switch to the next view about the characteristics of artistic shapes, or change the shapes of different parts of different buildings. Compared.
Figure 5 Detailed explanation of beam lift
Case Study-Traveling in Qufu Confucian Temple
Among the existing wooden structures in China, the Qufu Confucian Temple was called by Liang Sicheng as an “isolated example” in the history of world architecture due to its grand scale and long history.
Figure 6 The real scene of the Confucian Temple in Qufu
Geographically, the Qufu Confucian Temple is located in Shandong, the hometown of Confucius and Mencius, and the location of the stele pavilion of the Confucian Temple can be clearly seen on the map. The size of the circle represents the stele pavilion of the Confucian Temple, which is three bays wide and three bays deep. The green color means that it is a beam-lifting building, and most of the wooden structures in the picture are also beam-lifting.
Figure 7 The stele pavilion of the Confucian Temple in Qufu
The axis in the right view is actually a list of 140 wooden buildings. The left side of the axis encodes the building area. The single building area of the Confucius Temple Stele Pavilion is 117 square meters. The timeline on the right side of the axis shows that it was built in the Jin Dynasty.
From the information pop-up window of the building, it can be clearly seen that the Qufu Confucius Temple uses the former residence of Confucius as a temple and is enshrined in the old age. Since the Western Han Dynasty, the emperors of all dynasties have continuously added posthumous titles to Confucius, and the scale of the Confucian Temple has become larger and larger. Among them, the earliest wooden The structural building is the two stele pavilions built during the Jin Mingchang period in the middle of the Kuiwen Pavilion.
If you want to know the specific shape of the stele pavilion of the Confucian Temple, you can see it by selecting the Confucius Temple. In this view, a specific line draft has been drawn for the main features of the stele pavilion of the Confucian Temple, including the bucket arch, roof shape and main structure. It can be seen that it is important. The top of the eaves and the four sides are covered with yellow glazed tiles. The whole is simple and simple. The bucket arches under the four eaves support the huge roof.
Figure 8 Line draft and shape of the stele pavilion of the Confucian Temple in Qufu
If you select different parts of the building in the online draft, you can see different classifications. For example, if you select the column, you can see an overview of the overall structure of the wood structure building. and combined type; select Roof, you can see the overview of the wooden structure roof, according to the roof, it is divided into hard top, hanging top, Hudian top, Xiesong top; Divided into Jin, Liao, Song, Tang, Yuan.
Figure 9 Select bucket arch
Select the bucket arch part of the stele pavilion of the Confucian Temple, you can see the detailed introduction of different bucket arches and the line drawings depicting the bucket arch structure. You can also click on the map interface to see the geographical distribution of all Jin Dynasty bucket arch buildings. These buildings will be high on the map. Lights up for further exploration.
Figure 10 Details of bucket arch
For thousands of years, the Confucius Temple has undergone major repairs 15 times, medium repairs 31 times, and minor repairs hundreds of times. The dynasties that created it have been buried in the sands of history, and now we can appreciate the charm of wooden buildings without going over mountains and mountains.
In the long history, wooden buildings are not only shelters for the ancients to shelter from the wind and rain, but also treasures for modern people to understand and trace Chinese civilization. This project uses visual means to dismantle the wooden buildings, and restores the construction process of the craftsmen in terms of structure, scale and shape. Ancient buildings enter digital life.
This visualization is a preliminary exploration of the Tang and Song Dynasty wooden structure buildings. The data comes from relevant academic papers. Among them, the interpretation of history and culture also needs experts to help correct possible fallacies; further improvement requires further cooperation with experts in related fields. Interested scholars are welcome to contact: pkuvis[at]pku.edu.cn.
Curriculum Design “Gathering Wood into the Universe – Visualization of Chinese Wood Structure Architecture”
Panelists: Cui Tianrui of Peking University, Chen Xinyue of Peking University, Zhang Xuan of Nanjing University of the Arts, Sun Meng of Northwestern University, Yang Liuduozi of Wuhan University, and Yang Yazhi of Jiangnan University.
Instructors: Yuan Xiaoru of Peking University, Xu Ruige of Syracuse University.
The excellent course design of the summer school will be successively included in the “Visualizing China” webpage
Summer School webpage
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