What is the difference between the double wishbone suspension and the MacPherson suspension in terms of driving experience?

Let’s talk about the point first, and let’s talk about it later. The McPherson suspension has a simple structure and takes up very little space. However, due to the characteristics of the McPherson suspension shock absorber being fixed to the wheel, it limits the performance of filtering vibration for different road surfaces. The double-wishbone suspension flexibly moves up and down according to different road surfaces and filters out vibrations, but it takes up a lot of space. Let’s take a look at their characteristics and evolution based on examples.

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↑The difference between MacPherson suspension and double wishbone suspension

I believe that when it comes to suspension, everyone thinks of independent suspension or non-independent suspension. In fact, the above are all the suspension systems of the car suspension, which need to be matched with the shock absorption system in order to be fully effective. The main core components of the damping system are springs and shock absorbers. The structural feature of the independent suspension is that the axle is made to be disconnected, the wheels on each side can be connected to the frame independently through the elastic suspension, and the wheels on both sides can jump independently without affecting each other. Automobile suspension is specifically composed of suspension swing arms, struts and shock springs.

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↑The composition of independent suspension and non-independent suspension system

The working principle of the spring is to support the body mass. The spring is in the rest position when at rest. When driving, the spring compresses or bounces off as the road undulates, which translates into acceptable body vibration. This vibration is manifested in amplitude and vibration period. The presence of springs can turn road undulations into acceptable body vibrations. But this vibration will continue for a long time without interference. Just like the ideal spring and slider in the college entrance examination physics test questions, there must be a certain amount of friction to stop. This frictional force is called damping in car suspension. Shock absorbers are used to provide this damping. It allows the body amplitude to decrease more rapidly with the cycle.

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↑The working principle of the shock absorber of the automobile suspension shock absorption system

Xiaoxing will tell you about the difference between MacPherson suspension, double wishbone suspension and enhanced MacPherson suspension with the help of a friend’s hand-drawn drawings. Thank you friends for the easy-to-understand hand drawings.

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↑ Suspension comparison Macpherson (left), double wishbone (middle) and enhanced Macpherson (right)

MacPherson suspension is widely used on a large number of models on the market. The reason is that it has a simple structure and takes up very little space. It can be seen that the fixed point of the shock absorber of the MacPherson suspension is on the wheel, and the wheel and the chassis are connected through the active point. Also, due to the characteristics of the McPherson suspension shock absorber fixed to the wheel, the performance of filtering vibration for different road surfaces is limited.

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↑The working principle of McPherson suspension

The advantages of MacPherson suspension are:

Simple structure

low manufacturing cost

Lighter than double wishbone suspension

The disadvantages of MacPherson suspension are:

Toe angle is affected by vertical axial position

Limited freedom of toe angle selection

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↑The working principle of double wishbone suspension

The horizontal layout design of the engine results in that most of the space in the engine compartment is occupied by the engine and gearbox, and most models can only use the space-saving MacPherson independent front suspension. However, due to the simple design of its single connection point, its performance can only be said to be quite satisfactory. In some complex road conditions, it still shows the phenomenon of overcoming difficulties. High-end models will use more double wishbone suspension. The shock absorber of the double wishbone suspension and the two ends of the wheel are respectively fixed on the upper and lower wishbone through two active points. So it can flexibly move up and down according to different road surfaces and filter out vibrations.

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↑ Suspension comparison MacPherson (left) and double wishbone (right)

However, the double wishbone suspension has high space requirements, and most of the applied models are longitudinal engine models. How to solve space constraints and higher performance requirements, the general answer is the enhanced MacPherson suspension HiPerStrut. One end of the shock absorber tube and the wheel is fixed on the fork arm at the bottom through an active point, and the other end of the upper part is connected through the active point. It not only guarantees a compact space but also guarantees the performance of the suspension.

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↑Enhanced MacPherson suspension on Regal GS

Regal GS adopts HiPerStrut front suspension with two advantages:

Prevents torque steer, allowing the vehicle to steer easily under hard acceleration

Maintains negative camber of the wheels during cornering, allowing the tires to maintain good grip

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↑General Motors HiPerStrut enhanced MacPherson suspension

To sum up, the McPherson suspension has a simple structure and occupies a very small space, but the performance of filtering vibrations on different road surfaces is limited due to the characteristics of the McPherson suspension shock absorber being fixed to the wheel. The double-wishbone suspension flexibly moves up and down according to different road surfaces and filters out vibrations, but it takes up a lot of space. The Regal GS ensures both compact space and suspension performance through enhanced MacPherson front suspension.

Source: Zhihu www.zhihu.com

Author: Spicy Pen Xiaoxing

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Further reading:

Why are more and more vehicles using double wishbone suspension?

Why do car front wheels generally use MacPherson suspension?

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